《武昌城》:浴血重生的武昌城,不能忘却的历史

2019-05-20 消息来源:中国文化译研网

编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。


夏读书,日正长,打开书,喜洋洋。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负一夏好时光。


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方方丨《武昌城》



推荐理由

《武昌城》是著名作家方方的一次新的尝试,写1926年北伐时期的武昌之围,写历史风云。这是一部大手笔之作,大开大合,颇具阳刚之气。


小说并没有把焦点集中于战事本身,而是从武昌城中的几个学生起笔。以白描为主要手法,写武昌城中的市井生活,写这种日常在战争中的崩毁。与书写乱世人生的其它小说不同,方方并没有过多地关注自在状态的世俗烟火,没有以回望的姿态对旧日的时光进行历史的喟叹,相反,小说的叙述平实而冷静,掩藏了历史的价值判断,而充分尊重其模糊性:所有的毁灭中都包含着重生,而所有的重生又都孕育着死亡的因素。小说“大处着眼、小处入手”,语言简练,叙事精确。她将革命置于人类精神成长史中去展开想象,她更加关注的是在革命进程中人的精神走向。这更符合人们对战争和历史的想象,也更符合人性选择的逻辑。其记录历史的方式、解读历史的态度却从另外一个角度贯穿了历史与现实的潜在规则。


《武昌城》的故事有一种浑然自在的天成状态,而所有人对于变故来临而产生的反映都只不过是寻常的逻辑,都包含了永恒真理。它呈现的是“革命之于生活的剧烈振荡和深远影响”。整部虽不是全景式的架构,字里行间仍透露出大时代波澜壮阔的气息,内涵相当丰厚。


Reviews


In Wuchang City, Fang Fang attempts to write about the siege of Wuchang in 1926, during the Northern Expedition period. The plot arrangement of this work is so impressive, and its narration is grand and full of power.


This novel doesn’t focus on the war, but on several students in the city. Through her straightforward style of writing, Fang has described the common life in Wuchang city and the condition of destruction during wartime. Different from other writers depicting people in troubled times, Fang doesn’t focus too much on the common life, neither does she sigh with emotion about the past. On the contrary, the narration of this work is calm, hiding the author’s judgment on history, fully retaining its duality. Regeneration exists in all the destruction, while in all of the regeneration exists death. This work starts small and grows big, with concise language and accurate narration. Fang puts the revolution against the background of the development of the human spirit. She is concerned with the spiritual tendencies of common people in the midst of revolution, which is better in line with readers’ imagination about war, history and the logic of human nature. The way and attitude Fang records and interprets history runs through the whole work, and tells the interwork of history and reality.


There is a kind of natural temperament in Wuchang City. All of the responses of the characters to the unforeseen events fit natural logic while containing eternal truths. The story presents the idea of “how the revolution shocks and impacts people’s lives.” Although this work does not construct the entire scenery of history, the atmosphere of the era still appears from each line of the work, full of substance.


作家简介

Author Profile

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方方,本名汪芳,女。汉族。祖籍江西,1955年5月生于南京。1982年毕业于武汉大学中文系。1975年曾在武汉市运输公司当装卸工人,1982年分配至湖北电视台,曾为电视剧编剧、专题片编辑。1989年调湖北省作协,曾任《今日名流》杂志社社长兼总编辑。现任湖北省作家协会主席、省文学创作系列高评委会主任、中国作协全委会委员,一级作家。


1976年开始发表作品,1982年始发小说,1985年加入中国作家协会。著有长篇小说《乌泥湖年谱》《武昌城》,随笔集《到庐山看老别墅》《汉口的沧桑往事》,中短篇小说集《风景》《桃花灿烂》《有爱无爱都铭心刻骨》《涂自强的个人生活》及《方方文集》(五卷)等,曾获鲁迅文学奖、“五个一工程奖”等多个奖项。现已出版小说、散文集约六十余部,多部小说被译为英、法、日、意、葡、韩等文字在国外出版。


Fang Fang (1955- ), originally known as Wang Fang, was born in Nanjing, with her ancestral home in Jiangxi province. Her parents worked for a transportation company in Wuhan. As soon as she graduated from Wuhan University in 1982, Fang worked at Hubei Television Station as an editor of TV dramas and feature films. In 1989, Fang was transferred to Hubei Writers Association, to serve as the president and chief editor of Celebrities Today magazine. Now, she is working as the chairperson of the Hubei Writers Association, and the director of the Hubei Literature Jury. She is also a committee member of the China Writers Association, and is one of China’s senior writers.


Fang began publishing her literary works in 1976 and her first novel was published in 1982. Fang joined the China Writers Association in 1985. Her novels include A Chronicle of Wuni Lake (1987), Wuchang City (2011), To See the Old Villa in Lushan Mountain (2014), Old Stories in Hankou (2014), etc. Her novellas and short stories collections include such works as Scenery (1987), Peach Blooming (1987), Unforgettable Memories (2012), The Sorrow life of Tu Ziqiang (2013), Fang Fang works collection (5 volumes) (1996), etc. Fang is the winner of the Lu Xun Literature Prize, and has also received many other prizes such as The Best Works Award. To date, Fang has published more than 60 literary works, some of which have been translated into English, Japanese, Italian, Portuguese, Korean, etc., and have been released around the world.


中文概要

Synopsis

长篇小说《武昌城》以1926年北伐战争中的武昌战役为中心事件,再现当时的历史情境,讲述战争对老百姓生活的摧毁,以及战争中人的成长、毁灭和重生,讲述一段城墙永久的消失和一段历史永久的定格。

小说分上下两部,分别写城外北伐军的“攻”和城内北洋军的“守”。上部以追随北伐军的青年学生梁克斯、罗以南,北伐军连长莫正奇以及女兵郭湘梅、张文秀的故事为线索,描写了战争的惨烈,战争中人性的袒露,理想和友情的强大力量以及不同信念、不同性格之间的冲突和契合。下部主要刻画了北洋军军官马维甫,进步学生陈明武、洪佩珠,北洋军遗孤喜云等人物,在大军压境、坐困愁城的日子里,军人的天职和良心、青年的激情和懦弱、少年的天真和早熟,都在纠结中得到充分的展现。

小说开始,罗以南的恋爱遇到挫折,万念俱灰,只想离开武昌城出家。在路上遇到了同学梁克斯,梁克斯深受国民革命北伐思想的教育,对共产主义学说也感兴趣。北伐兴起,北洋军警在武昌城大肆搜捕进步学生,梁克斯从武昌城赶到广州去投北伐军,又从广州追到湖南。在梁克斯的鼓动下,罗以南和他一道投奔北伐军。追上了北伐军,他们被分配到政治部做宣传工作,梁克斯一心要拿枪上战场,假冒一位生急病的敢死队队员的名字混进了敢死队。

北伐军一路势如破竹攻到武昌城下,士气十分高涨。攻城战斗中,敢死队几乎全军覆灭,梁克斯从城墙上摔下,浑身是伤,两腿不能动弹,只能和其他几个伤兵在城楼的门洞里等着救援。莫正奇和罗以南多次设法救梁克斯,都没有成功。梁克斯坚持到最后一刻。他给罗以南留下一封信,说自己坦然地迎接死神,为主义而死,绝无畏惧。

围攻武昌城的北伐军获得胜利后,罗以南安葬了梁克斯和莫正奇。他记着梁克斯的嘱托,继续北伐。

同情革命的学生陈明武被守城士兵的怀疑和追赶,幸好遇上来找丈夫的北洋军参谋袁宗春的夫人和孩子,他谎称自己是袁夫人的孩子,才得以逃命。

袁夫人和孩子由袁宗春朋友和部下马维甫安顿到表妹洪佩珠家。洪佩珠和陈明武是同学,且爱着陈,马维甫则爱着表妹洪佩珠,而洪佩珠却讨厌跟北伐军作战的北洋表哥。面对守城的北洋军士兵的胁迫,洪佩珠跳井而亡。本来决心守城到底的马维甫看着城内百姓死伤无数、守城士兵军纪败坏,尤其是表妹的死,动摇了他的铁血之心,他打开城门北伐军进城。但他觉得自己背叛了上司的信任,而革命军也因此看不起他,加上失去心爱的表妹,他忍受不了内心的纠结,跳城身亡。

陈明武性格柔弱,面对母亲的失踪,同学的死亡,他的精神一度被摧垮,在马维甫的一番凌厉的言词的教导下,他慢慢清醒。深爱他的洪佩珠的惨死,使他悔恨万分。他坚强起来,承担起照顾袁宗春夫人一家的重任。在战火和危险中,他终于完成了马维甫的重托,带着袁宗春的一双儿女艰难地逃出武昌城,将他们送到乡下安全的地方。

千年武昌古城早已不复存在,在武昌城下发生的这些充满理想和激情、渗透鲜血和生命的故事,永远不能忘记。


Wuchang City is centered on the Battle of Wuchang, which took place during the Northern Expedition of 1926. This novel reconstructs these historical events, telling a story about how war destroys ordinary people’s lives, while revealing the formation, destruction and regeneration of humans during wartime. It also tells a story about the permanent disappearance of the city wall and the unchangeable image of a stretch of history.


This novel consists of two parts, separately describing the “attack” of the Northern Expeditionary Army outside the city and the “defense” of the Beiyang warlord Army inside the city. The first part threads together the stories of young students, Liang Kesi and Luo Yinan, who follow the Northern Expeditionary Army, and Mo Zhengqi, the captain of the Northern Expeditionary Army. The stories of two woman soldiers, Guo Xiangmei and Zhang Wenxiu, also show the bitterness of war and reveal the true human nature during wartime. This part praises the power of ideals and friendship while describing the conflict and reconciliation among different beliefs and characters.


The second part mainly portrays the roles of Ma Weifu, a military officer of Beiyang Warlord Army, two progressive students, Chen Mingwu and Hong Peizhu, and Xi Yun, an orphan from Beiyang Warlord Army. As the enemy approaches the Wuchang city, the natures of those trapped people are fully revealed along with the vocation and conscience of a soldier, the passion and cowardice of young people, and the innocence and precocity of children.


At the beginning of the novel, Luo Yinan is constantly disappointed by love. Feeling helpless, his only desire is to leave the city. On the road leaving Wuchang city, Luo Yinan meets up with his classmate Liang Kesi, who sympathizes with the ideals of Northern Expedition’s national revolution and meanwhile is also interested in the Communist Theory. The Northern Expedition breaks out in 1926, and the military policemen of Beiyang Warlord Army begin to track down and arrest progressive students without restraint. Liang Kesi hurriedly leaves Wuchang for Guangzhou to join up with the Northern Expeditionary Army and then follows the army from Guangzhou to Hunan. Encouraged by Liang Kesi, Luo Yinan also joins up with the Northern Expeditionary Army. After catching up with the Northern Expeditionary Army, they are assigned to the Department of Publicity. However, Liang Kesi is bent on going to the frontlines with arms, so he pretends to be another soldier who suffers from an acute disease, sneaking into the dare-to-die corps.


The Northern Expeditionary Army fights its way through, and quickly arrives at the periphery of Wuchang with boosted morale. In the siege battle, the entire dare-to-die corps is almost wiped out. Liang Kesi falls from the city wall, seriously injured, unable to move his legs. He can do nothing but wait for help in the gateway together with other wounded soldiers. Mo Zhengqi and Luo Yinan have tried many times to rescue Liang Kesi, but to no avail. Liang Kesi holds on to the last moment, and leaves Luo Yinan with a letter, saying that he is prepared to die and that it is glorious to die for communism.


After the Northern Expeditionary Army takes Wuchang city, Luo Yinan buries Liang Kesi and Mo Zhengqi. Always remembering Liang Kesi’s words, he continues to follow the Northern Expeditionary Army.


Chen Mingwu, a student who has a deep empathy for the revolution, has been noticed and chased off by guard soldiers. He then fortunately runs into Yuan Zongchun’s wife and children. Yuan Zongchun is a staff officer in the Beiyang Warlord Army. Chen pretends to be Mrs. Yuan’s kid and manages to get his escape.


Ma Weifu sends Mrs. Yuan and her children to the home of Hong Peizhu, Ma’s younger female cousin. Hong Peizhu and Chen Mingwu are classmates, and she loves Chen, but Ma Weipu loves his cousin. Moreover, Hong Peizhu hates Ma because he is following the Beiyang Warlord Army fighting against the Northern Expeditionary Army. Faced with threat from soldiers of the Beiyang Army, Hong Peizhu jumps into a well and dies. Ma Weifu, who was determined to fight to death, seeing the countless bodies of his people, scattered troops, and moreover the death of his cousin sister, finally gives up and opens the door. Struggling with the facts of betraying the trust of his supervisor, being looked down upon by the revolutionary army and losing his beloved cousin sister, he jumps from the city wall to his death.


Chen Mingwu is fragile and vulnerable in personality. Faced with his mother’s disappearance and the death of his classmates, Chen is near the point of breakdown. Luckily he gradually snaps out of it with the help of Ma Weifu’s stinging words. The tragic death of Hong Peizhu, the girl who loved him, makes him deeply grieved. After pulling himself together, he undertakes the responsibility of taking care of Mrs. Yuan’s whole family. Chen doesn’t betray Ma Weifu’s trust, taking Yuan Zongchun’s children out of Wuchang city to a safe place.


Wuchang city, the thousand-year-old ancient town, disappears, but the stories that happened in this city, the stories full of ambition, passion, blood and life, will last forever.


责任编辑:罗雨静

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