《石榴树上结樱桃》:一幅21世纪初的"乡土中国浮世绘"

2019-05-07 消息来源:中国文化译研网

编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。


夏读书,日正长,打开书,喜洋洋。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负夏日好时光。


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李洱丨《石榴树上结樱桃》


推荐理由


李洱一改以前对知识分子题材的关注,在长篇小说《石榴树上结樱桃》中, 将注意力投向了中国农村,从遥远的历史,回到当下中国的生活现实,描绘了一幅巨变中的中国乡村社会的图景。


这是一部真正直面农民当代生存状态,描写当下乡村权力关系现状的小说。小说不是靠气势如虹的情节驱动,而是由众多细节一波一波地推演,由栩栩如生的描述展现,在平淡无奇的日常性中,触及生活的本质,也显示了中国的哲学以及中国解决现实问题的独特方式。小说描述了一场别开生面的“乡村战争”,看不到硝烟,却杀机四伏,就如一潭湖水,水面微波不起,水里却是暗涛汹涌。一幕幕村级选举的闹剧活灵活现。村长官衔虽小,可掌握着全村人的政治经济命脉。但作者并无意渲染权力争夺的残酷,更无心以此来招徕猎奇的眼球,他在讲述这场战争的同时,不徐不疾地展示着活色生香的新时代乡村的图景,不时用幽默俏皮的语言调侃一番,对这场“乡村战争”似乎超然物外,事实上,在不动声色的描述中,透露出的是他对乡村现状的喜和忧。


李洱描绘了在权力的诱惑面前的众生百态,小说里每一个人物都有血有肉,每一个细节都似曾发生,落笔生花、妙语铺成。在中国现代乡土叙事中,这一长篇具有一种原创性,它幽默智慧的文字祛除了“传奇”和“苦难”对中国乡土的简化和遮蔽,可以用“乡土中国”“现代性”“民主实践”这些大词概括这部小说的主题。它一定程度上触及了细腻的日常,质疑了现代文学以来的乡土叙事传统,使乡土由想象和言说的对象变为想象和言说的主体,恢复了乡土中国的喧哗、混杂,恢复了它难以界定的、包孕无穷可能性的真实境遇。《石榴树上结樱桃》出版后,广受好评,不仅在国内,这部小说也在国际上成为深入了解中国文学和中国当下社会生活现状的必读之作。


Reviews


In the novel A Cherry on a Pomegranate Tree, Li Er has shifted his  focus from Chinese intellectuals to the rural areas, portraying a landscape of China’s rural community that undergoing the drastic transformations.


This novel addresses contemporary rural life and power relationships in a head-on way. Instead of structuring a grand plot, the novel progresses along with many strands of interlinked minutiae. It not only explores the nature of life from the vivid descriptions of mundane reality, but also demonstrates Chinese philosophy and unique Chinese-style solutions in day-to-day problems. The novel depicts a spectacular “rural war”--the one that has roaring waves beneath the tranquility. Though the village head doesn’t sound like a powerful role, it grips on the village’s political and economic life. However, the author does not intend to play up the cruelty of power struggles, nor sell the story in a sensational way. He presents a colorful rural picture in the new era through this unseen war. In his narration of the war, he teases and ridicules here and there as if he were a total outsider; In effect, it is such a detached narration reveals his mixed feelings towards the rural present.


Li Er portrays a myriad of lives under the temptation of power. Each character is fleshily built. All the details are well written; The story is interesting and intriguing right down to the core. Among modern Chinese rural narratives, this novel originates a new discription on China’s rural life through its witty language, avoiding the tranditional simplification such as “legendary” and “miserable”. As a whole, this story not only reflects the grand themes such as “Vernacular China”, “Modernity”, and “Democracy in practice” but also touches upon the daily routines in rural areas. It challenges the traditional narratives over this subject in  modern Chinese literature, shifting the “rural community” from the object to the subject of imagination and presentation.It restores a diverse and authentic vernacular China and illustrates its indefinite possiblity in the future.


A Cherry on a Pomegranate Tree has well recived by readers since its publication. It has become a must-read book in home and abroad, for those who wants to have an in-depth understanding on the Chinese literature and current society.


作家简介


Author Profile

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李洱,河南济源人,1966年生。中国先锋文学之后最重要的代表作家之一。1987年毕业于上海华东师范大学中文系,曾在高校任教多年,先为河南省文学院专业作家,并兼任《莽原》杂志副主编,现任职于中国现代文学馆。20世纪80年代末期开始文学创作,与毕飞宇一起被视为中国先锋文学运动之后最重要的代表性作家。主要作品有长篇小说《花腔》《石榴树上结樱桃》,中短篇小说集《午后的诗学》《饶舌的哑巴》《遗忘》《夜游图书馆》等,曾获首届“二十一世纪鼎钧双年文学奖”、首届“华语传媒图书大奖”,第九届“庄重文学奖”,第三、第四届“大家文学奖”;入选“茅盾文学奖”“华语文学奖”等。作品被译成德语、日语、意大利语、俄语等多语种。


2002年1月由人民文学出版社出版的长篇小说《花腔》在海内外引起极大反响,被批评界普遍认为是2001-2002年度最优秀的长篇小说之一。该书行销近10万册,与莫言的《檀香刑》一起获得首届21世纪鼎钧双年文学奖,并入围第6届茅盾文学奖。《石榴树上结樱桃》是李洱继《花腔》之后的又一部长篇力作,描写了在权力的诱惑面前人们的自尊、良知受到的考验,用他看似随意、诙谐,实则精细的语言将每一个细节放大,在琐屑的叙述中凸显出当代乡村居民的真实状态。该作获得首届“华语图书传媒大奖·文学图书奖”,并成为德国总理默克尔送给温家宝总理的书,并拍摄了同名电影和电视剧。


Li Er, born in 1966, is a native of Jiyuan, Henan Province. After graduating from the Chinese Department of East China Normal University in Shanghai, he had taught in university for several years before pursuing a professional career in writting. He was once a professional writer in the Literature Academy of Henan Province while concurrently worked part-time as an associate editor-in-chief of Mang Yuan. Now, he works in the National Museum of Modern Chinese Literature. He started writing in the late 1980s, and soon be acclaimed, together with Bi Feiyu, as one of the most representative writers in Chinese avant-garde literature. His famous works include: the novels Coloratura, A Cherry on a Pomegranate Tree; and the novella and short story collections: Poetics in the Afternoon, A Chattering Mute, Lost in Memory, A Night Visit of the Library. Li won the 1st Dingyun Biennale Literature Award of the 21st Century, the 1st Chinese Media Book Grand Prix, the 9th Zhuangzhong Literature Award, the 3rd and 4th Master Literature Award, and shortlisted for Maodun Literature Award and Chinese Literature Award. His works have been translated into German, Japanese, Italian, Russian and many other languages.


The novel Coloratura was published by People’s Literature Publishing House in January 2002, drumming up quite a buzz in both home and abroad. It was viewed as one of the best novels between 2001 and 2002 among literature critics. The circulation of the book was nearly 10 million copies. Together with Mo Yan’s Sandalwood Death, the book won the 1st Dingjun Biennale Literature Award of the 21st Century and shortlisted for the 6th Maodun Literature Award.


A Cherry on a Pomegranate Tree is another masterpiece of Li Er after the massive success of Coloratura. It depicts how people’s self-esteem and moral conscience are tested by the allure of power. In the novel, the author magnifies every bit of minutia in language that comes off a mix of casualness and sense of humor, while maintaining delicate precision and detail. The descriptions of daily trifles that reveal truthfully the status quo of rural residents in modern times well qualify the book to the 1st Chinese Book Media Grand Prix·Literature Book Prize and be presented to Premier Wen Jiabao as a gift by German Chancellor Madame Merkel. The novel has also been adapted for both film and television, bearing the same title.


中文概要

Synopsis

《石榴树上结樱桃》这部16万字的小说,描写了一个当下中国农村生活的图景:村级选举。表现了乡土中国在全球化时代所面临的复杂局面,写出了中国在现代化进程中的诸多困难以及困难中的希望。

官庄的村级选举又要开始了,现任主任繁花特意让在深圳打工的丈夫回来帮忙,拉选票,再写一份竞选演讲辞。

在这个节骨眼上,主抓计划生育的庆书来报告:有人计划外怀孕了。庆书现在积极得很。快选举了嘛,人家已经有要求了,要求新班子成立以后,再给他多压些担子。

繁花刚开完布置村级选举的会,张县长强调了,基层工作要落到实处。计划外怀孕的只要出现一个,原来的村委主任就不再列入选举名单了。出现两个,班子成员谁也别想成为候选人。

计划生育是村里的头等大事。一想起雪娥的肚子,那无疑是颗定时炸弹,繁花头皮都发麻了。第二天,繁花就拉着庆书一起去找了雪娥,繁花想通过思想工作这把“扫帚”,扫掉雪娥肚子里的“灰尘”。雪娥先是装糊涂,后来就开始撒泼。

天快黑的时候,繁花给团支部书记孟小红打了个电话,让她通知干部们饭后开会。人对脾气狗对毛,繁花对孟小红总是有一种说不出的喜欢。自从听了小红的建议,建起了那座石拱桥,繁花对小红更是高看一眼。小红还很谦虚,总是说:“村里的能人多的是,你还是先给他们压担子吧。我一个黄毛丫头,承担不起。”这话说的好啊,主要是位置摆得正,知道自己几斤几两。哪像庆书,剃头挑子一头热,明目张胆地伸手要官,一点儿也不知道韬光养晦。繁花想,等选举完了,计划生育工作干脆交给小红算了。交给了小红,她就省心了。小红不光有这个能力,还有这个魄力。

雪娥跑了。雪娥的丈夫李铁锁大闹村委,活要见人,死要见尸。吃豹子胆了?放跑了老婆,他还有理了?繁花说:“联系我们村的实际,目前最主要的问题就是雪娥的肚子。都想一想,雪娥会往哪里跑。咱们这些人啊,可都是一根绳上的蚂蚱,想不团结都不行。各唱各的调,各吹各的号,那是行不通的。”

祥生是村里的文教卫生委员,兼村会计,可最近两年,一直在溴水做生意。开会的时候,繁花心里已经有了一个小算盘,那就是把祥生和庆书都支出去,不能让他们在村里拉帮结派。庆书好办,派他去找雪娥就行了,找不到雪娥唯他是问。祥生就给他一笔经费,让他去把那个老外引来官庄。

牛乡长对繁花说,工作中有什么困难,尽管提出来,组织上帮助解决。又问,这次选举有什么把握。繁花说:“选上就再干一届,选不上拉倒。”牛乡长又把繁花表扬了一通:“一颗红心两种准备,好。不过,我知道你会连任的。是骡子是马拉出来一遛就知道了。官庄村交给别人,我还不放心呢。一千多张嘴呢。”

跟老同学李皓碰过杯,繁花说:“又要选举了,这次你可一定要出马啊。羊就先别放了。我想让你把村提留啊,公积金啊,管理费啊,公益金啊,都管起来,统统管起来。班子里我缺一个知音啊。日后村里还要成立民主理财小组,到时候也由你牵头。”李皓透露:祥生想干村长,正在招兵买马,以图决战。繁花又问李皓:“小红呢?”李皓的回答让繁花满意:“小红是只金凤凰,你们是龙飞凤舞,龙凤呈祥,就跟戏台上雕的画一样。她是你天生的接班人。”说起庆书,李皓说:“他看的书,都是从我这借的,全是关于林彪的书,他整天研究的就是这个。林彪想当国家主席,庆书想当村委主任。”李皓还无意中透露了有人在经常性地开碰头会。繁花把话题扯到雪娥身上。李皓说:“台风眼儿是最宁静的。灯下黑。”繁花一时反应不过来。

李皓的话不能全信,也不能不信。她想去查查祥生的账。祥生不是想支书、村长一肩挑吗?不要以为有人选你,就没人能够拦住你了。拦路虎还是有的,那就是账单。麻县长说得好,你吃进了多少,就得屙出来多少。

其实说白了,祥生只是一棵蒺藜,一棵扎在脚底板上的蒺藜。祥生后来又事先退出了选举,这就等于把蒺藜拔了出来。至于庆书,繁花想,他只是一条泥鳅,翻不起大浪的,只要看着他别再添乱就行了。小红为了村里的利益义无返顾地做了一回英雄,还受了伤。

繁花突然接到消息,说在废弃的纸厂见到雪娥了,雪娥正在纸厂那里养孩子呢,最初告发雪娥的裴贞在给雪娥送饭。繁花觉得这里面有戏。这唱戏的人当中,庆书是一个,祥生是一个,尚义也算一个。

裴贞说:“其实你们早就知道我在给雪娥送饭了。小红知道的事你还能不知道?今天就轮到小红送饭了。小红给我说了,在这节骨眼上,不能让那么多人知道雪娥怀孕了。”

小红?小红也知道?小红还给雪娥送饭?繁花脑子里“嗡”了一下。繁花有些不对劲了。一开始是头重脚轻,没走几步,又颠倒过来了,变成了头轻脚重。

第二天选举的时候,繁花的烧已经退了。她没去会场,就坐在自家的院子里。牛乡长在主持会议。牛乡长特意表扬了“孔繁花同志”,说她身上有一种精神,为了人民的利益鞠躬尽瘁的精神,这是官庄村干部的“传家宝”啊,不能丢的。然后是演讲。最先演讲的是孟小红。孟小红平时只要站在大喇叭跟前,都是用普通话说话的,这会儿用的却是本地方言。孟小红重点提到了纸厂的改造。她说,她比任何人都痛恨污染,所以请大家放心,她会下决心配合纸厂搞好治理。

小红发表过演说以后,繁花正等着听庆书发表演说呢,乐曲声却响了起来。嗬,这就开始投票了?看来庆书也放弃竞选了。那乐曲声突然停了。小红又发表了演说,那自然是就职演说了。现在小红又改成了普通话。那普通话说得好啊,都有点儿像倪萍了,哗啦啦地就把观众的感情给煽起来了。但小红说了些什么,繁花却没有听清楚。


The 160,000-word novel A Cherry on a Pomegranate Tree creates a portrait of rural life in contemporary China through a village-level election. It reflects the complexities that the rural China has to face in the era of globalization as well as the difficulties and hopes along the modernization process.


Election season is starting again in Guan Village, and Fanhua, the current village head called her husband back from his temporary employment in Shenzhen. She hopes he can give her a hand in the campaign, helping her to solicit more votes and write an election speech.


At this crucial moment, Qingshu, the man who is in charge of Family Planning Policy Management in the village, came to report that Xue E is pregnant again,-- an absolute violation of Family Planning Policy! With elections right around the corner, Qingshu has acted more enthusiastically, asking for more responsibility once a new leading group is established.


Fanhua just finished her meeting on village’s election arrangement, wherein County Magistrate Zhang highlighted the importance of grassroots work. A single case of breaking the family planning policy would disqualify the current village committee director in the coming election. Should there be two cases, the entire administration will be expelled. 


Family planning is the top priority for this village. Everytime Xue E’s pregnancy occurs to her, Fanhua finds it diffcult to breathe. She views the whole thing as a time bomb that ready to go off anytime. So, she set off to see Xue E the very next day with Qingshu. Though efforts had been made to deactivate this “bomb”, Xue E was being deliberately obtuse and making a scene in the end.


Come nightfall, Fanhua called the Youth League Secretary Meng Xiaohong, having her notify the officials to a meeting after dinner. Meng is someone Fanhua really likes and appreciates because of Meng’s proposal on the construction of the stone arch bridge. Meng Xiaohong is also a humble person, always says: “I’m young and inexperienced than many others in our village. It’s better you gave them more assignments rather than me” Isn’t that the nicest thing to hear! A lovely girl who fully awares of her position in here. Qingshu is no match for her – he brazenly asks for more power and relucant to keep in a low profile. Fanhua figures that she’d simply let Xiaohong take over the responsibilty of family planning regulation after the election; she could rest assured to let Xiaohong get everything under control, as she is more than capable of this position,


But not much later, the pregnant Xue E ran away. Her husband Li Tiesuo came to the village committee office and made a big scene. This was ridiculous – how dare you make this our fault when you deliberately let her hide away? Fanhua suggested to others: “Considering the current situation, the priority of our village right now is Xue E’s pregnancy. Let’s put our heads together and find out where she is. We’re all on the same boat – united we stand, divided we fall. It’s better that we sing in chorus rather than on our own.”


Xiang Sheng is the committee member in charge of cultural, educational and health matters. He is also the village accountant. But he’s been doing business in the Xiushui County in recent years. At the meeting, Fanhua concocted a plan – she will dispatch both Xiang Sheng and Qingshu out of the village to prevent them from forming campaign partnerships. Qin Sheng could be properly distracted by the task of finding Xue E, failure of which will get him blamed for negligence. For Xiang Sheng, he would be offered with some funds to attract that foreigner to the village.


County Head Niu said to Fanhua: “If you come across any difficulties in your work, mention them and the Party will do their best to solve them.” He also asked how confident she is for the election, to which she replied: “Serve a second term dedicately if elected, otherwise let it be.” The head praised her attitude: “I’m glad to hear you are duly prepared for both results. Having said that, I am all too certain you will be reelected. Actions speak louder than words, and I’d be worried all the time if I put the village in someone else’s hands. After all, over a thousand people live there.”


After a few drinks with Li Hao, a former classmate, Fanhua siad: “Election time again, you must help me this time. Leave your sheep herds aside for later – I want you to manage the fees paid by farmers, public accumulation funding, and other costs… everything! I need a confidant in the team, you know. A democratic finance team is to be set up in the village later, which you will also be heading.” Li Hao made it known to her that Xiang Sheng, who has coveted the position of village head, is expanding his campaign team to fight a winning battle. “What about Xiaohong?” asked Fanhua. She was very pleased to hear his answer: “Xiaohong is a golden phoenix. You are a perfect match for each other, just like the pictures of a dragon and phoenix carved on the stage wall. She is your born successor.” Speaking of Qingshu, Li Hao said: “All the books he reads are borrowed from me. They are all about Lin Biao. That’s what’s on his mind all day. Lin Biao wants to be the Chairman of the country, while he wants to be the committee director of the village.” Li Hao also slipped something to Fanhua that brief meetings have been going between some guys secretly. On the topic of Xue E, Li implied: “The eye of the typhoon is its most peaceful spot, and shadows lie under the light.” Fanhua was confused about what he said.


Fanhua only took Li Hao’s words partially and intended to check up on Xiang Sheng’s bank accounts. If there are any mishaps, they could get in the way of him in his quest for both positions of village secretary and head. This is well put by County Head Ma, “You will only get power when you pays for it, and God is equal to everyone.”


To put things straight, Xiang Sheng is a thorn in one’s hand. But once he pulled out of the election, this thorn was gone for everybody. As for Qingshu, Fanhua believes that he is nothing but a fish in the mud, stuck in one spot. Things will be fine as long as he just stays there and doesn’t mess around. Xiaohong, by contrast, has always fought for the interests of the village, a hero wounded by her plight.


Someone reported that Xue E was found in an abandoned paper plant, raising her kid there. Meanwhile, Pei Zhen, the woman who first reported this out-of-policy preganancy, was delivering foods to her. Fanhua sensed something fishy about this whole situation. Qingshu, Xiang Sheng and Shang Yi definitely all have a hand in it.


Pei Zhen confessed: “You must have known about this long time ago since Xiaohong founded out. It’s Xiaohong’s turn to deliver food today. She made it clear to me that only a few people should be involved in Xue E’s pregnancy at this critical period.”


Xiaohong? She knew all about this? And she’s delivering food to Xue E? All this new information caught Fanhua off-guard, making her world spinning.


The following day was the election day. Fanhua recovered from her fever. She didn’t go to the election assembly, but sitting in her yard instead. The meeting was chaired by County Head Niu, who spoke highly of “Comrade Kong Fanhua” that she has a commendable spirit, a spirit utterly devoted to serving the people. This spirit is an “heirloom” to the Guan village cadres, which must be kept at all costs. What followed were speeches, with Meng Xiaohong going first. Usually she’d speak only Mandarin in front of the loudspeakers but this time she spoke in the local dialect. She mentioned the paper plant particularly, saying that she hates pollution caused by the plant more than anyone else, and she are determined to fix the promblem.


Fanhua was waiting for Qingshu to give his speech next but surprised by the start of music from the loudspeak. Well, is it now time to vote? It seems Qingshu gave up the campaign as well. After a while, the music stopped and Xiaohong started her speech again. This was, for sure, her inauguration speech. She spoke in Mandarin, stirring the listeners passionately with the perfect pronunciation of a TV anchor. But her words never made it to Fanhua’s ears again.

责任编辑:罗雨静

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