《许茂和他的女儿们》:所有的好人,哪怕受了多少磨难,终归会幸福的

2019-05-22 消息来源:中国文化译研网


编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。


夏读书,日正长,打开书,喜洋洋。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负一夏好时光。


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周克芹丨《许茂和他的女儿们》


推荐理由


《许茂和他的女儿们》写的是1975年冬工作组进驻四川沱江流域一个山村前后,围绕许茂老汉一家发生的故事。它以十年内乱为背景,描写了当时文学还很少写到的这场内乱给农村人物关系带来的投影,特别是描写这种投影在一个勤劳淳朴的农民内心所激起的复杂变化。作者并未按照当时尚未消失影响的“无产阶级专政下继续革命”的左倾理论和“一个阶级一种本质”的人物典型论去“规范”生活,去勾画农村阶级斗争、路线斗争的公式化图像。恰恰相反,作者把自己的艺术构想建立在了对现实生活的真切感受和深沉思考上,而且紧紧抓住了“文学艺术必须追求真善美的统一”这一核心,力图使自己的小说创作既反映生活的真,也体现道德思想的善和情节结构的美。小说中几条线索的交织推进、人物形象的个性化塑造、生活细节的生动描写以及语言的朴素沉实,表征出当时的一个艺术高度。


在荣获茅盾文学奖的授奖大会发言中,周克芹说:“人民是作家的母亲;生活是文学的沃土。”可以说,《许茂和他的女儿们》之所以获得成功,主要是因为作者对立足生活、忠于真实的现实主义艺术追求。作品以创新的构思、生动的典型形象和极具特色的文学语言,描绘了一个既根植于生活现实、又闪射着诗意光辉的艺术境界,为中国当代文学的艺术园苑增添了一抹绚丽的春色。



Reviews


Xu Mao and His Daughters unfolds around the entry of the CPC working group into a mountainous village in Sichuan’s Tuojiang River area in winter 1975 and centers around the Xu family. Against the background of the Cultural Revolution, the novel, the first on this theme, describes the impact of the political calamity on the Chinese countryside, with the focus on Xu Mao, a simple and industrious peasant, and his family. Abandoning the leftist literary theories still prevalent at the time, Zhou instead builds the novel on his genuine feelings and deep reflections on real life and characters. Under the guidelines of truth, kindness and beauty, he succeeds in reflecting the truth of life, presenting moral courage and creating literary beauty. The novel stands out with multi-plot structure, vivid characterization and splendid language.   


In the acceptance speech of Mao Dun Literature Prize, Zhou said: “the People are the mother to the writer. Life is the soil of literature.” The success of Xu Mao and His Daughters lies in the author’s faithful pursuit of the realist literary tradition, shining with originality, vividness and linguistic brilliance. Zhou manages to create an artistic world which whilst based in reality, shines with sparks of idealism, enriching contemporary Chinese literature.


作家简介

Author Profile

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周克芹(1936年10月28日——1990年8月5日),四川省简阳县人。


周克芹于1958年在成都农业技术学校毕业后回乡务农,先后当过农民、民校教师、生产队长、大队会计、农业技术员、公社和区干部。1979年调入四川省文联从事专业创作。1980年加入中国作家协会。1985年担任四川省作协党组成员。1990年任四川省协党组副书记、常务副主席,兼任《现代作家》文学月刊主编。


1963年,周克芹发表第一篇短篇小说《井台上》,之后又陆续发表了《早行人》等20余篇作品。1979年,发表长篇小说《许茂和他的女儿们》,这部作品对十年动乱的农村生活进行了细致的描写与深刻的反思,在社会上反响很大。《许茂和他的女儿们》的发表,标志着周克芹创作道路上新的高度和新的起点,作者凭借这部小说,摘得了第一届茅盾文学奖的桂冠。


除上述作品之外,周克芹的作品还有中短篇小说集《二丫和落魄秀才》、短篇小说集《石家兄妹》、短篇小说《勿忘草》《山月不知心里事》《桔香,桔香》《晚》等等。其中,《勿忘草》和《山月不知心里事》分别获1980年和1981年全国优秀短篇小说奖。



Zhou Keqin (1936.10.28-1990.8.5) was born in Jianyang county, Sichuan province.


Upon graduating from Chengdu Agricultural Technology School in 1958, Zhou returned to his hometown. Starting out as a farmer, he later became a teacher, captain of the production team, accountant for the production team, agricultural technician and leader of the local commune and district. In 1979, he was transferred to the Sichuan Federation of Literary and Art Circles to work as a professional writer. In 1980 he joined the China Writers’ Association. In 1985 he became a member of the CPC committee of Sichuan Writers’ Association. In 1990 he became deputy CPC secretary and vice chairman of Sichuan Writers’ Association as well as chief editor of Modern Writers, a literary monthly magazine.


In 1963 he published his first work, At the Well, followed up by more than twenty other pieces of work, such as Early Riser. In 1979 he published Xu Mao and His Daughters to great acclaim, a novel that vividly describes and deeply reflects on the life in the countryside during the decade of turmoil. This novel marks the milestone in Zhou’s literary career, winning him the 2nd Mao Dun Literature Prize.


Besides the above mentioned, Zhou’s works also include Er Ya and The Poor Scholar, a collection of short stories and novellas, The Shi Siblings, a collection of short stories. Short stories such as The Scent of Orange, Evening, Forget Me Not, which won 1980 National Award for Excellent Short Story, and The Moon over the Mountains Have No Idea What I Think, which won 1981 National Award for Excellent Short Story. 


中文概要

Synopsis


1975年冬天,县委工作组组长颜少春、组员齐明江一行到川西葫芦坝搞整顿试点工作,大队代理支书龙庆安排颜少春住在了许茂老汉的家里。许茂老汉早年丧妻,老伴儿在生老九时不幸得病去世了,亏得解放后分得土地翻了身,又依靠当时合作化的优越政策,许茂老汉得以把他的一个个女儿培养长大。那时的许茂,感到党的政策“样样合他的心意”,他担任过作业组组长,还获得过“爱社如家”的奖状。可近些年不称心的事情却接踵而来,老汉心里苦恼得很,性格也变得越发固执与自私了。

许茂老汉有九个女儿,坝上的人们都笑称他为“女儿国国王”。大女儿嫁给了原党支部书记金东水,现已病逝;二女儿、五女儿、六女儿嫁到了川西坝,过着比较富裕的生活;三女儿许秋云被称为“三辣子”,嫁给了东村老实厚道、多才多艺的罗祖华;七女儿在公社供销社当营业员;八姑娘在外地当兵;九姑娘许琴是本村的团支部书记,是一个热情积极的20岁姑娘。

故事开始于工作组进驻葫芦坝的前一天,离了婚的四姑娘许秀云突然向父亲宣布,她不愿再嫁到山里,准备在娘家的破小屋中另立门户。许秀云是一个温和、贤惠、手巧又能吃苦的女子,原为现任葫芦坝大队党支部书记郑百如的妻子。十年前秀云被郑百如用流氓的手段威逼成婚。十年动乱中,郑百如用十分卑劣的手段斗倒了当时葫芦坝的大队党支部书记(也就是四姑娘的大姐夫)金东水,干了许多违反党纪国法的坏事。一年多前在掌握实权后喜新厌旧,动用卑鄙无耻的手段诬陷许秀云与金东水关系不正常而和秀云离了婚。许茂和三姑娘许秋云由于封建思想作怪,不仅不安慰四姑娘,反而认为离了婚的许秀云给许家丢了脸,想赶紧给她再找个婆家嫁出去了事。就在不久前,由三姐夫罗祖华张罗,终于给许秀云在耳鼓山找了个死了女人的男人,说好了不日就定亲。而现在,秀云突然决定不再嫁人,家里一下子炸开了锅。许茂老汉实在忍受不了村里人的说长道短,他想方设法地要把女儿撵走;三姑娘秋云尽管好心,此时也是闹不明白妹妹到底打什么主意。然而,正在这一家人一筹莫展的节骨眼上,郑百如却莫名其妙地一改往日趾高气扬的神情,谦卑地向许家提出了要与秀云复婚的想法,甚至趁夜溜进了秀云的房间,准备当面求情。原来,这一切都是因为郑百如得悉了工作组要来葫芦坝的消息,他怕秀云把他做的那些坏事,特别是火烧金东水家房子的事揭露出来,就想借复婚来稳住四姑娘,让她不至于到处乱说。不过,郑百如的如意算盘到底没有打响,复婚的提议遭到了秀云拒绝。

工作组到了葫芦坝,许茂老汉以不欢迎、不信任的态度对待组长颜少春。颜少春是一位中年妇女,从前担任过县委宣传部长,刚刚才从干校调回县里就怀着许多干部都曾有过的“重返前线”的喜悦心情下乡工作了。面对老汉的冷遇,颜组长并不在意,反而是在听到许茂老汉夜里咳嗽得挺厉害后,热心地托九姑娘给老汉送药。然而,面对热心肠的颜少春,许茂并不领情,甚至还郑重地付给了她两角钱的药费,意思是提醒颜少春不要白吃他家的饭。颜少春痛感农民与干部的关系已经糟糕到了如此地步,于是立刻细致地开展调查工作,想要弄清这背后的原因。而此时她的副手齐明江由于不了解实际情况而又自以为是,被狡猾的郑百如利用,以工作组的名义出面要求许秀云和郑百如复婚。许秀云本来对工作组抱着很大的期望,可自从在一次支委会上听到郑百如的长篇发言,工作组对发言并没有表示质疑或反对的态度,再加上如今齐明江又以工作组的名义来当郑百如的说客,她转而又陷入了失望之中,隐隐地认识到自己孤立无援的处境,决定还是要靠自己的力量去开拓前程。

秀云一直很同情大姐夫金东水的遭遇,金东水遭郑百如陷害被撤了职,房子又被烧,妻子连气带恨不久就抱病离世,撇下两个孩子长生和长秀。长秀只有两岁,一直由四姑娘抚养,四姑娘待大姐的两个孩子就如自己的孩子一样,对大姐夫也是格外关照。可是这样时间一长,就不免招来诸多非议,有人造谣金东水和四姑娘的关系不清不楚,这让爱面子的许茂老汉非常恼火,他一气之下接回了长秀,并从此再也不允许金东水和许家人来往。为了使金东水在父亲生日那天能来许家贺寿并与老父亲和解,秀云特地用自己的钱到连云场赶场,为金东水备办给父亲的礼物。在与金东水父子三人路遇后,秀云当着郑百如的面,领着金东水的一双儿女坦然走进市场,尽管大姐夫因为面子粗暴地抱走孩子,她内心的渴望多少受了些打击,但希望之火没有熄灭。秀云在连云场的举动让流言蜚语顿时传遍了整个葫芦坝,这让她再一次陷入了困境。在一次群众大会上,郑百如的姐姐,人称“闲话公司”的老板郑百秀甚至对秀云当众辱骂,这让秀云不禁悲愤交加,突然意识到在这个人世间,对金东水及其子女的深切的爱,已经成为了维系她生命的唯一支柱。

秀云无意中听到郑百如和齐明江的对话,知道他们正在整理继续打击陷害金东水的材料,获悉了这个阴谋的她一下子就从流言蜚语的昏昏蒙蒙中惊醒,忘记了一切痛苦,并做出一个重要决定:她要勇敢地站出来,当众揭发郑百如迫害金东水的阴谋,保护自己的亲人。工作组这边,没有被郑百如所蒙蔽的颜少春经过周密的走访调查,并报上级批准,终于决定恢复金东水葫芦坝党支部书记的职务。东水的好帮手龙庆高兴之余,突然提出要为金东水介绍他早就物色好的刘家大队的妇女队长,以解除东水工作的后顾之忧。谁知,龙庆与金东水的这一席谈话恰好被怀抱着最后一线希望走向金东水小屋的许秀云听到,秀云万念俱灰,纵身投河,幸而被闻讯而来的金东水及时救起,才得以保住了性命。

恰逢秀云向金东水小屋走去时,七姑娘许贞奉许茂的命令追寻而来。原来郑百如得悉区委工作组建议让他进“学习班”而惊恐万分,他想堵住秀云的嘴,于是入夜再次潜入秀云的房间哀求、耍赖。睡在床上的许贞大叫,闻声赶来的许茂终于弄清了真相。在事实面前,他终于在郑百如和金东水两人之间判出了善恶是非,觉得自己之前的举动冤枉了秀云也误会了金东水。

许茂老汉病了一冬天,现在也好了。在生日前夕,他召开了一次家庭会议,将平时积聚的财产分成九个小包赠予了女儿们,其中还有一份是老汉送给金东水的,这预示着许茂老汉与金东水的和解。颜少春这时不失时机地向许茂提出了金东水和许秀云的婚事,许茂终于默许了。正当金东水带领着葫芦坝人民大兴水利时,工作组突然接到命令离开葫芦坝,历史又将经历一段曲折。秀云为颜组长送行,坚定地表示她要同金东水、老爹和姐妹们一起,抗拒任何歪风邪气。颜少春也同样坚信:葫芦坝的党支部很坚强,能够经得起风吹雨打,葫芦坝将来的春天一定会更加美丽。


In the winter of 1975, the CPC county committee working group, consisting of Yan Shaochun the leader, and Qi Jiangming, her subordinate, arrive at Huluba in western Sichuan to carry out a pilot project of restoring order to the local community. Local CPC leader, Long Qing, assigns Yan Shaochun to stay at the home of the elderly Xu Mao. Xu Mao is a widower, having lost his wife early on, who died soon after giving birth to their 9th daughter. Thanks to the policy of land reform and agricultural co-operation following the liberation, he manages to bring up his nine daughters. At that time, Xu Mao, was perfectly happy with the policies, having once assumed the role of working team leader and even winning awards for his efforts. In recent years, however, with “misfortune” dogging him, he feels bitter and is becoming more and more stubborn and selfish.   


Xu Mao has nine daughters altogether, so he is nicknamed by the local populace as the “Monarch of the Kingdom of Women.” The eldest, wife of former local CPC secretary Jin Dongshui, already died. His second, fifth and sixth daughters all married into households in Chuanxiba and live in relative prosperity. Xu Qiuyun, the third daughter of the family is nicknamed the “spicy third” due to her fiery temper, is married to the multi-talented and honest Luo Zuhua in the eastern village. The seventh daughter works at the commune shop. The eighth daughter joined the army. Xu Qin, the ninth daughter and local secretary of Communist Youth League, is a passionate girl of twenty.


The story begins on the day prior to the working party’s arrival in Huluba. Xu Xiuyun, the fourth daughter who divorced her husband, suddenly declares to Xu Mao that she is unwilling to marry into the mountainous village as was previously arranged and that she will set herself up in his ramshackle hut. Xiuyun, tender and industrious, is now divorced from Zheng Bairu, the man who tricked her into marriage ten years ago, and is currently Huluba’s local CPC secretary. Zheng Bairu took his position from Jin Dongshui, widower of Xu Mao’s eldest daughter, by employing vile methods and committing many evil deeds. Tired of his marriage to Xiuyun, he divorced her a year ago on the trumped-up pretext of her infidelity with Jin Dongshui. Influenced by outdated ideas, Xu Mao and Qiuyun, the third daughter, decide to marry Xiuyun off as soon as possible to avoid any social stigmas. Luo Zuhua, husband to Qiuyun, arranged a match-up with a widower in Luogushan, with the engagement to be soon announced. Now, Xiuyun suddenly decides to break off the engagement, and that causes a furor in the family. Fed up with the gossip in the village, Xu Mao decides to expel Xiuyun. Qiuyun, while sympathetic with Xiuyun’s misfortune, fails to truly understand her. While the Xu family is struggling with the impasse, Zheng Bairu, seemingly a different person from his usual arrogant self, humbly begs Xiuyun to forgive him and re-marry him, going so far as to sneak into her bedroom at night. It turns out that he intends to prevent Xiuyun from revealing his evil deeds, such as burning down Jin Dongshui’s house, to the coming working group. Xiuyun, however, turns his offer down flatly.  


Xu Mao views Yan Shaochun with mistrust. Yan, a middle-aged woman who used to head up the Publicity Department of the CPC county committee, has just returned from the training school for party workers and has started to work in the countryside with passion and dedication. She does not mind Xu’s mistrust. She instead upon hearing him coughing violently at night helps to procure medicine for him, for which she receives 20 cents from Xu, who is still maintaining his distance between them and reminding her to pay for her board. Pained by such mistrust of the peasants for the Party workers, Yan sets out immediately to find out the reasons. During all this time, Qi, her arrogant subordinate, is completely ignorant of the situation and manipulated by Zheng to make the offer of re-marriage to Xiuyun in the name of the working party. Xiuyun, who initially entertained great hopes toward the working group, is gravely disillusioned by the endorsement of Zheng’s speech at a party meeting and the offer of remarriage. Vaguely conscious of her isolation, she decides nevertheless to find a way out for herself.


Xiuyun has always been highly sympathetic to Jin Dongshui, who first lost his position to Zheng, then his house to arson and finally his wife. Of the two children left behind by her eldest sister, Xiuyun has been taking care of Chang Xiu, who is only two years of age. Xiuyun, because of her caring for Jin Dongshui and his two children out of sympathy, arouses malicious suspicions of adultery with Jin, causing embarrassment to her father, who decides to tale care of Chang Xiu himself and forbid all contact between Jin and the family. To make it possible for Jin to attend her father’s birthday celebration with a view towards reconciliation, Xiuyun goes to the bazaar to buy birthday gifts with her own money on behalf of Jin. Under the gaze of Zheng, Xiuyun leads the two children calmly into the bazaar. Although Jin later takes away the children to avoid embarrassment and thus causing her great pain, her hopes still live on. The rumor of the incident spreads like wild fire all over Huluba, again plunging her into dire straits. At a meeting, Zheng Baixiu, sisiter of Zheng Bairu, nicknamed “rumormonger,” slanders her publicly. While deeply pained by the incident, it suddenly dawns on Xiuyun that the love for Jin Dongshui and his children is now the sole anchor of her life.    


Accidently hearing the conversation between Zheng Bairu and Qi Mingjiang talking about collecting evidence against Jin Dongshui to further incriminate him, Xiuyun forgets the pain and makes an important decision: she shall reveal Zheng’s scheme in public to protect her family. At the same time, Yan, on the basis of solid work, decides to propose Jin Dongshui’s rehabilitation and restoration to his former position to senior CPC leaders. Long Qing, Jin’s former deputy, decides to arrange a matchup for Jin with another woman. Again, accidently hearing the conversation between Jin and Long, Xiuyun loses all hope and throws herself into the river. Fortunately Jin appears in time to save her life.


While Xiuyun is on her way to Jin Dongshui’s home, Xu Zhen, the seventh daughter, comes to Xiuyun’s house at the request of the father. Zheng Bairu, frightened by the prospect of being sent for re-education by the working group, again sneaks into Xiuyun’s bedroom to beg his ex-wife for her forgiveness. Xu Zhen, resting in her sister’s bed, cries out for help. Xu Mao arrives on the scene and finally learns the whole truth. He now has a clear idea where justice lies and feels regret for his misunderstanding of Xiuyun and Jin Dongshui. 


Xu Mao finally recovers from his winter-long ailment. On the eve of his birthday, he assembles the family and distributes his savings in nine equal portions to his remaining eight daughters and Jin Dongshui. Yan Shaochun seizes the occasion and proposes marriage between Jin and Xiuyun. Xu Mao consents in silence. While Jin leads the local populace in building up the irrigation system, the working group suddenly receives orders to depart, signaling uncertainty ahead. At the farewell party for Yan, Xiuyun says confidently that she will stick with the family through thick and thin against all adversities. Yan also says confidently that the party sub-committee at Huluba is strong enough to withstand any adversities and that the future is bound to be bright.


责任编辑:罗雨静

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    “2019年中蒙联合图书展”期间,2019年中蒙联合图书展开幕式暨中国主题图书蒙语版新书发布会、中蒙图书创作与文化交流论坛、《蒙古汉学与文化发展报告》发布会等系列活动精彩纷呈。新华社、人民日报、中央广播电视总台、蒙古国家公共广播电视台、真理报等10余家中蒙媒体现场予以了报道。

  • 'CHN-MGL Joint Book Fair' celebrating two countries' relations

    A series of activities to commemorate the 70th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and Mongolia officially opened in Ulaanbaatar, the capital of Mongolia, on September 10, 2019.

  • “中蒙汉学与文化交流论坛”暨《蒙古汉学与文化发展报告》发布会在蒙古国家图书馆圆满举行

    2019年是中国人民共和国成立70周年,也是中蒙建交70周年,70年里,两国交流合作在政治、经济、人文等各个领域取得了巨大发展,中蒙汉学发展和文化交流也在曲折中前进。为进一步加强中蒙思想文化交流与中蒙学者及专家间的深度合作与交流,中国文化译研网(CCTSS)联合中国教育图书进出口有限公司于2019年9月11日,在蒙古国家图书馆举行“中蒙汉学与文化交流论坛”暨《蒙古汉学与文化发展报告》发布会。

  • 《三体》等图书蒙语版在蒙古国出版

    不久前,《三体》蒙语版由中国文化译研网(CCTSS)“巴特尔工作室”首席翻译家、蒙古国著名翻译家宝力德巴特尔先生翻译,宝力德巴特尔先生表示,很多中国图书在试译阶段就已经受到蒙古读者的一致好评。

  • “以书为媒”,纪念中蒙建交70周年 “中蒙联合书展”系列活动在乌兰巴托开幕

    为深入落实中蒙两国元首今年4月达成的共识,庆祝中蒙建交70周年,以书为媒,进一步巩固中蒙睦邻友好合作关系,增进两国民众间的相互了解,促进中蒙出版业交流,加强文明互鉴和沟通,全面展示70年来中蒙出版交流和文化互译成果,中国国家新闻出版署联合蒙古国教育、文化、科学和体育部、蒙古国家公共广播电视台等多家单位举办的纪念中蒙建交70周年系列文化活动2019年9月10日在蒙古国首都乌兰巴托市正式启幕。