《爸爸爸》:以“寓言体”复活神秘瑰奇的楚文化

2019-06-06 消息来源:中国文化译研网


编者按:为了更好地进行中国文学海外传播工作,让中国作品在海外被发现(Discover)、被理解(Understand)、被传播(Express),中国文化译研网(CCTSS)邀请国内资深文学主编及文学评论家,精选出近两百部短中长篇小说,形成第一期《中国当代文学作品指南》(简称“指南”),从更具权威性、价值性的角度出发,更好地向世界展示中国当代文学精品,传播中国书香。


夏读书,日正长,打开书,喜洋洋。现将“指南”中的精品文学作品以一日一推的方式向读者呈现,让我们不负一夏好时光。


爸爸爸.jpg

韩少功丨《爸爸爸》



推荐理由


《爸爸爸》是寻根文学的代表作之一。最初发表于《人民文学》1986年第6期。小说以一种寓言的方式,通过鸡头寨这一封闭落后的小山寨的历史人事传说,展现了传统文化的愚昧、凝滞、板结的存在状态。小说塑造的丙崽这一形象,是迥异于传统现实主义小说的形象。他痴傻呆木,是一个从身体到心灵都不健全的人。他永远只有背篓高,只学会两句话:“爸爸”和“×妈妈”。而且这两句话还被鸡头寨人视为阴阳二卦,而丙崽则为人们称为“丙相公”、“丙大仙”被顶礼膜拜。最后,当鸡头寨人被鸡尾寨人“打冤家”打败后,按照传统习俗要求,青壮年迁徙进深山,而老弱病残却服毒药集体自杀,但服毒药的丙崽却奇迹般地活了下来。这样一个人物实际上属于一个象征性的符号,他象征着传统文化的畸形和无可救药,但它却具有顽强的生命力。最后,丙崽冲着不知何处所喊出的“爸爸爸”,也许正象征着一种呼喊现代文明拯救畸形传统文化的吁求吧。


Reviews


As a representative work of Root-Seeking Literature, Pa Pa Pa was published in the sixth issue of People’s Literature in 1986. By recounting the legends of Jitou Village’s events and historical figures, the novel uses this closed and backward place to reveal the foolish, stagnated and unbending nature of their conventional culture, doing so in the style of a fable. Different from the personages featured in traditional realistic novels, the dull and silly Bing Zai was actually a boy with a defective body and soul. He was only ever as tall as a basket carried on the back, and could only say “Papa” and “F*** mom”, which became regarded as the two diagrams of Yin and Yang; at the same time, he was worshipped as “God Bing”. Finally, after the Jitou Villagers were defeated by those from Jiwei, according to custom, the young migrated to the remote mountain while the weak and elderly suicided together by taking poison; however, Bing Zai, who also had taken the poison, miraculously survived. His character was highly representative of the deformity and incurable nature of traditional culture, despite his unique trait of vitality. In the end, the crying out of “Papapa” to an unknown place may symbolize the appeal to modern civilization to save this grotesque traditional culture.



作家简介

Author Profile


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韩少功,1953年出生于湖南长沙,现居海南。1982年毕业于湖南师范大学中文系,1985年进修于武汉大学英文系,随后调任湖南省作协专业作家。1988年迁调海南省,历任《海南纪实》杂志主编、《天涯》杂志社长、海南省作协主席、海南省文联主席。中国作协第四届理事、第五、六、七、八届主席团委员。现任海南省文联名誉主席,兼任海南大学和深圳大学客座教授,清华大学当代文学与文化研究学术委员会委员。1974年开始发表作品。早期代表作品有《月兰》《西望茅草地》等,另与人合作完成传记《任弼时》。1985年倡导“寻根文学”,发表《文学的根》,提出“寻根”口号,并以自己的创作实践了这一主张。这一时期代表作有《爸爸爸》《女女女》《归去来》等。1996年出版的长篇小说《马桥词典》引起各方争论。新世纪出版长篇《暗示》《山南水北》《日夜书》等。另有译作《生命中不能承受之轻》(昆德拉著)、《惶然录》(佩索阿著)等数种出版。


曾获境内外奖项多次。主要有:1980年、1981年全国优秀短篇小说奖;2002年法国文化部颁发的“法兰西文艺骑士奖章”;2007年第五届华语文学传媒大奖之“杰出作家奖”;第四届鲁迅文学奖;美国第二届纽曼华语文学奖等。作品分别以十多种外国文字共三十多种在境外出版。 


Born in Changsha, Hunan Province in 1953, Han Shaogong currently lives in Hainan Province. In 1982, he got his bachelor's degree from Hunan Normal University. Three years later, he finished further studies in the English Department of Wuhan University. Not much later, he was appointed chairperson of the Hunan Writers Association. In 1998, Han was transferred to Hainan Province, successively serving as director of the Chronique de Hainan, proprietor of the Frontier, chairperson of the Hainan Writers Association, president of the Hainan Federation of Literary and Art Circles, member of the fourth committee of the Chinese Writers Association, as well as of the fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth CWA bureau. Now, he holds the posts of honorary chairman to the Hainan Federation of Literary and Art Circles, Hainan University and Shenzhen University visiting professor, and senior researcher of the Contemporary Literature and Cultural Studies Academic Committee at Tsinghua University.


In 1974, he began to publish his works, with Yue Lan (The Orchid) and Seeing the Thatch in the West being his breakthrough collections. He also collaborated with other authors to complete a biography titled Ren Bishi, after a famous Chinese Communist Party leader. In 1985, he published a celebrated article The Root of Literature advocating “Root-Seeking Literature”, which he also practiced in his own writing. His representative works of this style were Pa Pa Pa, The Homecoming and Femme, femme, femme. In addition, his A Dictionary of Maqiao published in 1996 stirred up much controversy among readers.  Since the turn of the century, he has published novels such as A Hint, Books of Days and Nights, and South of the Mountain, North of the Water. He has also worked as a translator, his works including The Unbearable Lightness of Being (by Milan Kundera) and The Book of Disquiet (by Fernando Pessoa).


He has won many awards both home and abroad, which include the 1980 and 1981 National Short Story Awards, the 2002 French Theatrical Knight Medal conferred by the French Cultural Ministry; The 5th Chinese Literature and Media’s Distinguished Writer Award, 4th Lu Xun Literature Prize, and the 2nd American Newman Prize for Chinese Literature. Over thirty of his works were published abroad, spanning a dozen languages.



中文概要

Synopsis

丙崽生下来就是一个白痴,长大了只会两句话:“爸爸”和“×妈妈”,而且这两句话还有情感色彩,高兴时叫“爸爸”,恼怒时叫“×妈妈”。丙崽没见过真正的爸爸,而且有没有这个爸爸,谁也说不清楚。 


丙崽的妈妈是个接生婆,有时也像儿子一样,间或也翻一个白眼。丙崽所在的鸡头寨,是一个古老闭塞的山寨,山寨颇有古风,语词古朴,连称呼都与山外不同,比如,父亲叫“叔叔”,叔叔叫“爹爹”,姐姐成了“哥哥”,嫂子成了“姐姐”。“爸爸”一词还是从山下千家坪传上来的。山寨里有个德龙会唱古歌,唱他们的祖先是姜凉,姜凉上溯到府方、火牛、尤耐直至刑天。刑天是开天辟地的英雄,他的子孙繁衍生息,人满为患,才在凤凰的提议下,西迁至稻米江畔。这个唱简的德龙似乎就是丙崽的父亲。


鸡头寨连年歉收,需要杀人祭谷神,丙崽首当其冲被用来献祭,但当刽子准备好时,被天上一声霹雳,吓坏了,他们认为丙崽非同凡人,于是纳头即拜,称丙崽为“丙大仙”“丙相公”,丙崽的“爸爸”“×妈妈”也成为阴阳二卦。


祭不了谷神,风水先生又让鸡头寨人去炸掉鸡头山的鸡头,于是鸡头寨与鸡尾寨相互械斗,尽管鸡头寨人从丙大仙那里得来了吉卦,也难免惨败的命运。按照古训,失败的一方必须退进更深的大山里,胜方可以让开一条生路。于是,鸡头寨的族长仲裁缝上山采来毒药,让老弱病残服下,以便青壮年轻装上路。鸡头寨的青壮年唱着一丝血腥气都没有的古歌上路了,鸡头寨的老弱病残死于非命,然而,丙崽却没有死,非但没有死,头上的癞疮疤也痊愈了,这时,人们发现这个永远长不大的小老头正冲着一个不知是何方的地方叫着“爸爸”,引来了一伙孩童在学着他高叫着“爸爸爸爸爸”······


Born an idiot, Bing Zai could only say two lines after growing up — “Papa” and “F*** mom”, which were always filled with emotions. To be accurate, he would say “papa” if he was in a good mood, and “F*** mom” if he was angry. And to add to this dilemma was the fact that Bing Zai had never seen his real father, and it was never clear whether he even had one to begin with.


As a midwife, Bing Zai’s mother had a habit of rolling her amber eyes, which showed a resemblance to her son. And the Jitou Village (literally, Rooster Head Village) where Bing Zai lived was ancient and isolated, an air of antiquity filling the place, the village having rough-sounding words and different terms to address people by. For example, fathers would be called “uncle”, uncles “father”, sisters “brother”, and sisters-in-law “sister”. The word “father” was passed down from the Thousand House Village located at the foot of the hill. A villager by the name of Delong (Virtuous Dragon) could sing ancient songs praising their ancestors such as Jiang Liang, or even about topics as far back as Fu Fang, Huo Niu, You Nai and finally to Xing Tian. As a hero that created the world, Xing Tian migrated his descendants to the river bank at the suggestion of the phoenix when they had become too numerous. It seemed that Delong could possibly be Bing Zai’s father.


Due crop failures lasting several years, it became necessary to sacrifice someone to the Grain God, with Bing Zai becoming the first choice. But just before he was executed, the executioner was scared out of his wits by a thunderbolt. Since then, people began viewing Bing Zai as an extraordinary boy, kowtowing to him in an instant and calling him “God Bing”. His two pet phrases of “Papa” and “F*** mom” also became the two diagrams of Yin and Yang.


Failing to sacrifice to the Grain God, the geomancer then ordered the residents of Jitou Village to bomb the head of Mount Jitou, which resulted in fierce fighting between the Jitou and Jiwei (literally “Rooster Tail”) villages. And though the Jitou combatants received an auspicious divination from God Bing, they couldn’t escape their impending and crushing defeat. According to an old maxim, the defeated must withdraw to a remote mountain, the winner leaving them a road out. The Jitou clan leader picked poisonous herbs from the mountain and told the old, weak, ill and disabled to eat them, so as to ease the younger generation’s burden as they took to the road. And so, they set off singing their ancient songs which did not bear one hint of cruely, the weak and vulnerable people having already passed away. But Bing Zai didn’t die, instead, the scabby scars on his head became cured. At this time, people found that this little old man with eternal youth was crying “Papa” to an unknown place. And children drew all round him in imitation, calling “Papapa”…

责任编辑:罗雨静

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